Marion, Marie-Hélène. La crampe des musiciens: Traitement par injections de toxine botulique. [Musicians' Cramp: Treatment with Injections of Botulinum Toxin.] Médecine des arts: Approche médicale et scientifique des pratiques artistiques (Montauban, France) nos. 12-13 (June-September 1995): 44-46.
Discusses the injection of botulinum toxin to relieve functional dystonias and reports on ten cases of the treatment. About one-half of patients can be helped, with the treatment administered long term in conjunction with a physical retraining program. The benefits of an injection disappear after four to six months. Professional musicians are unlikely to fully regain their technique.